They range from the subtropical lowlands to the subalpine regions of Japan.
Diet in the Wild:
Leaves, grain, fruit, insects, tree buds, shoots, and mice
Diet at the Zoo:
Monkey biscuits, oranges, sunflower seeds, and raisins. Free browsing
The average body mass for an adult male Japanese macaque is around 25 pounds and they measure from 19 to 24 inches. The fur color varies from brown to white. There is no hair on the face and it becomes red during adulthood. This species has a relatively short tail.
Japanese macaques are tree dwelling (arboreal) and active during the day (diurnal.) They are social animals and live in troops comprising of both males and females. Hierarchy in the troop is based on the matriline amongst females and strength amongst males. Macaques are intelligent and may use tools to obtain food. In the cold winter months, they will bask in the sun and soak in natural hot springs. This species has cheek pouches to carry food in while it forages.
When the female is ready to mate, her perineum swells and becomes redden. Gestation period is between 170 to 180 days. Single births occur, and breeding time is usually from November to January.
Japanese macaques are threatened due to deforestation and the loss of their habitat. As human development invade the territories of these macaques, human and macaque encounters increase, and about 5000 macaques are captured or shot each year (despite protection from the Japanese government) for they are considered as agricultural pests.